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RUSSIA Ivan IV "The Terrible" Czar Of
Male 1530 - 1584


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  • Birth  25 Aug 1530  Moskva, Moskva, Russia Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Christened  4 Sep 1530  Monastery Of The Holy Trinity, Moskva, Moskva, Russia Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender  Male 
    Died  18 Mar 1584  Moskva, Moskva, Russia Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Buried  Archangel Cathedral, Moskva, Moskva, Russia Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Notes 

    Name:
    • Early Reign

      Ivan succeeded his father Vasily III, who died in 1533, under the regency of his mother. When she died (1538), the regency alternated among several feuding boyar families (see boyars). Boyar rule ended only in 1546, when Ivan announced his intention of becoming czar. He was crowned in 1547. As czar, Ivan attempted to establish czarist autocracy at the expense of boyar power. In the early years of his reign, he reduced the arbitrary powers of the boyar provincial governors, transferring their functions to locally elected officials. The former boyars' council was replaced by a “chosen council” consisting of members who owed their status to the czar.

      In 1566, Ivan summoned what was probably the first general council of the realm (Zemsky Sobor), composed of representatives of different social ranks, including merchants and lower nobility. After reorganizing the army, Ivan conquered Kazan (1552) and Astrakhan (1556), thereby inaugurating Russia's eastward expansion. The conquest of Siberia by the Cossack Yermak took place late in his reign (1581–83). Ivan also began trade with England via the White Sea in the mid-1550s. To improve his access to the Baltic Sea, he undertook (1558) a campaign against Livonia. In the resulting war with Poland and Sweden, he was at first successful but was later defeated by Stephen báthory, king of Poland and Lithuania. The peace treaties (1582, 1583) forced the czar to renounce his territorial gains and cede additional territory to Sweden.

      Later Reign

      In his later years, Ivan's character, always stern, grew tyrannical. Apart from the reverses of the war, the change has been attributed to humiliations at the hands of the boyars during his childhood; a serious illness (1553) and resistance at that time to his efforts to secure the succession of his infant son; the death of his wife, Anastasia Romanov (1560), whom historians credit with exercising a moderating influence; and the defection to Poland of his favorite, Prince Andrew Kurbsky (1564). Suspecting conspiracies everywhere, he acted ruthlessly to consolidate his power. In 1565 he set aside an extensive personal domain, the oprichnina, under his direct control. He established a special corps (oprichniki), responsible to him alone, to whom he granted part of this domain at will. With the help of this corps, he diminished the political influence of the boyars and forcibly confiscated their lands in a reign of terror. Many boyars were executed or exiled.

      Ivan formally abolished the oprichnina in 1572, although in effect it continued until 1575. Fits of rage alternated with periods of repentance and prayer; in one of his rages he killed (1581) his son and heir, Ivan. Although the exact number of his wives is uncertain, Ivan probably married seven times, ridding himself of unwanted wives by forcing them to take the veil or arranging for their murder. Despite his cruelty, he was a man of intelligence and learning. Printing was introduced into Russia during his reign. Two sons, Feodor I and Dmitri, survived the czar, but after his death his favorite, Boris Godunov, gained power.
    Person ID  I5  Royal Family of Europe
    Last Modified  1 Nov 2005 

    Father  MOSCOW Vasilij III (IV) Grand Duke Of,   b. 26 Mar 1479, Of, Moskva, Moskva, Russia Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 3 Dec 1533, Moskva, Moskva, Russia Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Mother  GLINSKAYA Elena Vasilevna Princess,   b. Abt 1508, Of, Moskva, Moskva, Russia Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 3 Apr 1538 
    Married  21 Jan 1527  Cathedral Of The Assumption, Moskva, Moskva, Russia Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID  F11  Group Sheet

    Family 1  Mayvi 
    Married  NOT MARRIED 
    Children 
    >1. SHESTOVA Kseniya Marfa Ivanovna,   b. Abt 1565, Of, Moskva, Moskva, Russia Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 26 Jan 1631
    Family ID  F1621  Group Sheet

    Family 2  ROMANOV Anastasia,   b. Abt 1530, Of, Moskva, Moskva, Russia Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 7 Aug 1560, Kolomenskoye, Moskva, Russia Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Married  (3)13 Feb 1547  Cathedral Of The Assumption, Moskva, Moskva, Russia Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Children 
     1. RUSSIA Anna Ivanovna, Grand Duchess Of,   b. 10 Aug 1548, Of, Moskva, Moskva, Russia Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 20 Jul 1550
     2. RUSSIA Mariya Ivanovna, Grand Duchess Of,   b. 17 Mar 1551, Of, Moskva, Moskva, Russia Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Young
     3. RUSSIA Dmitrij Ivanovich, Grand Duke Of,   b. Oct 1552, Of, Moskva, Moskva, Russia Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 26 Jun 1553
     4. RUSSIA Ivan Ivanovich, Grand Duke Of,   b. 28 Mar 1554, Of, Moskva, Moskva, Russia Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 19 Nov 1582
     5. RUSSIA Evdokiya Ivanovna, Grand Duchess Of,   b. 26 Feb 1556, Of, Moskva, Moskva, Russia Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Jun 1558
    >6. RUSSIA Feodor I, Czar Of,   b. 11 May 1557, Of, Moscow, Moscow, Russia Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 6 Jan 1598
    Family ID  F10  Group Sheet

  • Photos
    Ivan IV Vasilievich, (Known as “Ivan the Terrible.”) 1530–1584.
    Ivan IV Vasilievich, (Known as “Ivan the Terrible.”) 1530–1584.
    Status: Located



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